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Nutr Cancer. 2004;48(1):22-7.

Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer: meta-analysis of case-control studies.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Shimokato, Japan.


Prostate cancer has become the most common cancer among men in the United States. Although milk consumption is considered to be a risk factor in some epidemiological studies, the results are inconsistent. A meta-analysis method was conducted to estimate the combined odds ratio (OR) between milk consumption and prostate cancer from case-control studies published between 1984 and 2003 using commercial software (comprehensive meta-analysis). The combined OR was 1.68 (95% confidence interval = 1.34-2.12) in the 11 published case-control studies. The combined OR varied little by study stratification. Additionally, we evaluated the possible risk factors in milk for prostate cancer. In conclusion, we found a positive association between milk consumption and prostate cancer. The underlying mechanisms, including fat, calcium, hormones, and other factors, should be investigated further.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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